What is Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD)? What are causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment for CKD?
What is chronic kidney disease?Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which your kidneys get damaged and are unable to filter blood as effectively as they should. The illness is referred to as “chronic” since kidney damage occurs progressively over time. Wastes might develop in your body as a result of this ailment. Other health issues might arise as a result of Chronic Kidney Disease. The kidney’s primary function is to filter excess water and wastes from your blood. The kidneys balance the salts and minerals in your blood, such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium, to keep your body working properly. Your kidneys also produce hormones that aid in blood pressure regulation, the production of red blood cells, and the maintenance of bone strength.
The renal disease frequently worsens over time and might result in kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will require dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay alive.
The sooner you recognize that you have kidney disease, the sooner you can take steps to safeguard your kidneys.
Cause of Chronic Kidney DiseasePeople who have a disease like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and a family history of kidney failure have more risks to have chronic kidney disease.
Diabetes :- Diabetes is considered one of the most common causes of chronic kidney disease(CKD). Diabetes-related high blood glucose, often known as blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. CKD affects about one-third of all diabetics.
High blood pressure :- The second primary cause of CKD is high blood pressure. High blood pressure, like high blood glucose, can harm the blood vessels in your kidneys. CKD affects about one in every five persons with high blood pressure.
Heart disease :- According to research, there is a relationship between renal disease and heart disease. Persons with heart illness are more likely to develop renal disease, while people with kidney disease are more likely to get heart disease.
Genetic disorder :- Kidney failure runs in the family. You are at risk for CKD if your mother, father, sister, or brother has kidney failure. Kidney disease is a trait that runs in families. Encourage family members to be checked if you have a renal illness. Kidney illness becomes more likely as you become older. The longer you have diabetes, hypertension, or heart disease, the more probable you may develop renal disease.
Other causes of kidney disease:-
- Interstitial nephritis
- Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract
- Vesicoureteral reflux
- A drug that is toxic to your kidneys
- Lupus affects the entire body
- Heavy metal poisoning
- A disorder that affects the body immune system (Polycystic kidney disease)
Risk Factors of chronic kidney diseaseThe following factors can raise your risk of chronic kidney disease:
- Blood pressure is too high.
- Heart illness (cardiovascular disease)
- Kidney illness runs in the family
- Abnormal kidney structure
- Use of drugs that can harm the kidneys regularly.
Symptoms of Chronic kidney diseaseAs kidney illness develops, a person may experience swelling, known as edema. Edema occurs when the kidneys are unable to eliminate excess fluid and salt. Edema can affect the legs, feet, or ankles, as well as the hands and face but less often in comparison to legs, feet, or ankles.
Some symptoms of advanced CKD:-
- Feeling tired frequently
- The skin might get itchy
- Pain in the chest or nearby area
- Skin becomes dry
- Feeling of completely numbness in your body
- Pain in the head (Headache)
- Urge to vomit
- Difficulty in sleeping
- Difficulty in breathing
- Trouble in concentrating
- Weight loss
- Irregular Urination
- Cramps in muscles
How I can identify if I have kidney disease?Kidney disease does not have any kind of symptoms at the beginning stage. The only way to identify kidney disease is through a blood test or urine test. You should get it checked if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure. If you have diabetes you should get it checked every year. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease or a family disease talk to your health care provider about at what intervals you should be tested. As soon as you come to know about kidney disease you can get it treated.
Diagnosis of chronic kidney diseaseBefore a diagnosis of kidney disease, the doctor will consult with you about you and your family history. Except this doctor might also ask you about other things like whether you have been diagnosed before with high blood pressure, or you have taken medicine that infects kidney function, or you have felt changes in your urinary habits. After it, a doctor will do a physical examination like they will check the signs of problems with your heart or blood vessel.
The doctor performs three types of tests to identify the kidney disease:
Blood test for GFRGFR is a blood test that tells how successfully your kidneys filter your blood. GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate.
- A GFR of 60 or higher is considered to be normal. Discuss with your doctor when your GFR should be examined again.
- A GFR of less than 60 indicates that you may have renal disease. Discuss with your doctor how to maintain your kidney health at this level.
- Kidney failure is defined as a GFR of 15 or below. The majority of persons below this threshold require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Urine test for AlbuminA urine test to detect albumin. When the kidneys are damaged, albumin(a type of protein) can leak into the urine. Albumin is a kind of protein present in the blood. Healthy kidneys do not allow albumin to enter the urine. The lower the amount of albumin in your urine, the better. When albumin is present in urine that condition is considered albuminuria.
A health care provider checks the albumin in the urine in two ways:-
Albumin dipstick test :- A urine sample is used by a doctor to search for albumin in your urine. In a health care provider’s office or lab, you collect a urine sample in a container. A provider inserts a strip of chemically treated paper, known as a dipstick, into the urine for the test. If albumin is present in the urine, the dipstick changes its colour to another.
Urine Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) :- This test compares the quantity of albumin in your urine sample to the amount of creatinine. Your UACR is used by providers to estimate how much albumin will leak into your urine over 24 hours.
Urine albumin as a result of :- 30 mg/g or less is considered normal. More than 30 mg/g may indicate kidney damage. If your urine contains albumin, your doctor may request that you perform the urine test one or two more times to confirm the results. Discuss with your service provider what your figures mean for you.
Removing a sample of kidney tissueA kidney biopsy, which includes taking a sample of kidney tissue, may be recommended by your doctor. A long, thin needle is passed through your skin and into your kidney during a kidney biopsy, which is usually performed under local anaesthetic. The biopsy sample is submitted to a lab for testing to assist identify the source of your kidney disease. If you have kidney disease, your doctor will perform the same three tests to monitor your condition and ensure that your treatment plan is effective.
Complication of Chronic kidney diseaseChronic kidney disease can have an impact on practically every organ in your body. Complications that might arise include:
- Fluid retention can cause swelling in your arms and legs
- Increase in potassium levels in your blood (hyperkalemia), Anemia
- Cardiovascular disease
- Weak bones and a higher risk of fractures
- Reduced sex drive, erectile problems, or infertility
- Damage to your central nervous system
- Reduced immune response, making you more prone to infection
- Complications of pregnancy cause danger to both the mother and the growing child.
Some prevention methods to reduce chronic kidney diseaseOver-the-counter drugs :- Follow the manufacturer’s directions. Follow the directions on the box while using nonprescription pain medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and others), and acetaminophen (Tylenol, and others). Taking too many pain medicines over an extended period may cause renal damage.
Keep a healthy weight :- Keep your weight maintained by being physically active. If you need to reduce weight, see your doctor about appropriate weight loss options.
Don’t light up :- Smoking cigarettes can harm your kidneys and increase pre-existing renal problems. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about quitting methods, support groups, therapy, and drugs can all assist you in quitting the habit of smoking.
Manage your medical issues with the assistance of your doctor :- Inquire with your doctor about testing to search for indications of kidney disease.
Treatment of chronic kidney diseaseThe treatment of chronic kidney disease is completely dependent upon the causes. Some types of kidney disease can be treated but chronic kidney disease has no cure. Treatment mainly consists of methods that help in controlling the signs and symptoms to reduce the complications and decrease the progression rate of the disease. If your kidney is completely failed then you might require the treatment of the end-stage kidney disease. Treatments for moderate kidney disease make you a little comfortable by taking medications.
Medications for high blood pressurePeople who are suffering from high blood pressure can have worsening kidney disease. You might be advised to take medications like angiotensin, it converts the enzymes. But the medication initially decreases kidney function and changes electrolyte levels. So you need to do frequent testing of the blood to check your condition. Your doctor might guide you to take low salt in food and take a water pill (diuretic)
Medications for relieving swellingFluid retention is common in people with chronic renal disease. This might result in leg swelling as well as excessive blood pressure. Diuretics are medications that can help to keep your body’s fluid balance in check.
Medications for treating anemiaTaking supplements of the hormone erythropoietin helps in producing more red blood cells, sometimes with added iron. This may help to reduce fatigue and weakness associated with anemia.
Cholesterol-lowering medicationsTo reduce your cholesterol, your doctor may advise you to take statin drugs. Chronic renal disease patients frequently have high amounts of poor cholesterol, which can raise the risk of heart disease.
Medications that keep your bones healthy.Calcium and vitamin D supplements can help prevent bone weakness and reduce your risk of fracture. You may also be prescribed a phosphate binder to reduce the quantity of phosphate in your blood and protect your blood vessels from damage caused by calcium deposits (calcification).
Reduce your protein intake to reduce waste products in your bloodYour body generates waste products when it consumes protein from meals, which your kidneys must filter from your blood. Your doctor may advise you to consume less protein to lessen the amount of work your kidneys must do. A qualified dietician can advise you on how to reduce your protein intake while maintaining a balanced diet.
Methods for treatment of end-stage kidney disease. If your kidneys are unable to store waste and unable to clearance the fluid then you are at the stage of kidney failure and to survive you are required dialysis and kidney transplant compulsory
Kidney dialysis:-When your kidneys are unable to eliminate waste products and excess fluid from your blood, dialysis is used to do so. A machine separates waste and extra fluids from your blood during hemodialysis.
A small tube put into your belly fills your abdominal cavity with a dialysis solution that absorbs waste and excess fluids during peritoneal dialysis. The dialysis fluid eventually drains from your body, bringing the waste with it.
Kidney Transplantation :- A kidney transplant is the surgical placement of a healthy kidney from a donor into your body. Transplanted kidneys can be obtained from either deceased or living donors.
You’ll need to take drugs for the rest of your life to protect your body from rejecting the new organ after a transplant. A kidney transplant does not require that you be on dialysis.
Why choose Dr. Nisha Gaur for the prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease?Dr. Nisha Gaur is Jaipur’s best women nephrologist. She is well-known for offering the best kidney transplant, kidney biopsy, chronic kidney disease treatment, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis services. Dr. Nisha has been working in this profession for over 9 years and is well-versed in both the good and negative outcomes of any surgery. She gives an individual the best therapy possible based on their medical condition. She has successfully performed more than 30 + kidney transplants.
She not only gives excellent treatment, but she also provides moral support and comfort to the patient and their family. If you want the best treatment of chronic kidney disease in Jaipur, Dr. Nisha Gaur might be the one to see.
Frequently asked questions about Chronic Kidney DiseaseQ:1 Can I come back from kidney chronic disease?
Ans- There is no cure for chronic kidney disease (CKD), although medication can help reduce symptoms and prevent the condition from worsening. The treatment you get will be determined by the stage of your CKD. The major therapies are lifestyle adjustments aimed at keeping you as healthy as possible.
Q:2 Can I live a long life with chronic kidney disease?
Ans- Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can live long lives without being adversely impacted by the disease. Although it is not possible to restore renal damage that has already occurred, Only a tiny percentage of people develop advanced CKD.
Q:3 What diet is good for the chronic kidney disease patient?
Ans- The diet rich in fruits and vegetables tend to be more appropriate for CKD patients. A diet that contains low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts should be consumed. It has little sodium, carbohydrates and sweets, fats, and red meats.
Q:4 What are considered healthy drinks for people with CKD?
Ans- Black coffee, unsweetened green tea, sparkling water, low sugar smoothies, and water are considered healthy drinks for people with CKD.