Symptoms, stages, and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Symptoms, stages, and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

What is Chronic kidney disease?

The main function of the kidney is to filter blood and chronic kidney disease means the kidneys are impaired and can’t able to filter the blood as per expectations. There are many reasons behind developing kidney diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease sometimes it is genetic and may depend upon the family’s health history. Only health practitioners can evaluate how a patient develops chronic kidney disease by doing certain tests.

Facts about Human kidneys

• Human kidneys are as small as a mouse or a computer.

• It filters all the blood of the body every 30 minutes.

• Our kidneys work hard to remove toxins, wastes, and excess fluid.

• Our kidneys facilitate the production of red blood cells.

• They handle blood chemicals that are important for human life.

• They keep all the bones healthy.

How to recognize chronic kidney disease?

The only way to find out what’s wrong with the functioning of the kidney of the patient is through tests. Your practitioner will do certain tests and can only identify the cause after going over the reports of that tests.

You have to get checked your diabetes level, blood pressure, and heart health because these are the main reasons behind chronic kidney disease. The reason behind finding out the cause of CKD is it affects the treatment a patient will be going to receive for CKD.

There are two types of tests mainly done for identifying Chronic kidney disease

• Urine test:- That checks the amount of protein in the urine which is also an early sign of a kidney issue.

• Blood tests:- These checks the creatinine level in the blood which is a waste product.

Symptoms and side effects of Chronic kidney disease include

• Anemia or low blood cells.

• It increases the chances of infections in the body.

• Loss of appetite.

• Weakness and dizziness.

• Depression affects the quality of life.

• Low calcium levels in the blood.

• Changes in the pattern of urination

• Edema or swelling of limbs.

• Shortness of breath.

• Irregular heartbeats.

• Secretion of blood in the urine.

• Skin itching.

• Muscle cramping.

Stages of Chronic kidney disease

There are mainly 5 stages of Chronic kidney disease and depends upon the eGRF which is the estimated glomerular filtration rate that shows how well your kidneys are filtering the blood and other waste products.


This means – impairment in the kidney but still functions normally.

Signs and symptoms –

• High blood pressure.

• Urinary tract infection.

• Edema.

• Abnormal urination.

• Fatigue. 


Signs and symptoms –

• High blood pressure.

• High diabetes level.

• Changes in the color of urine.

• Swelling in hands and legs.

• Dizziness.


This means – Impairment of kidneys with mild to moderate loss of functioning.

Signs and symptoms –

• Changes in urination

• Fluid retention

•  high blood pressure

• Low Red blood cells.

• Loss of appetite.


This means – Severe loss of functioning of both kidneys.

Signs and symptoms –

• Anemia

• Bone disease

• Loss of appetite.

• Abnormal calcium levels in the blood.

• Abnormal phosphorus levels in the blood.

• Dizziness.


This means – close to failure, loss of all the Kidney Biopsy or failure of one of both kidneys.

Signs and symptoms –

• Fatigue.

• nausea.

• Vomiting.

• Shortness of breath.

• Loss of appetite.

• Anemia.

• Swelling in hands, legs, and back.

• Back pain. 

Treatment of Chronic kidney disease

Treatment of CKD involves:-





Treatment of chronic kidney disease

• High blood pressure medication

Generally, people with CKD have higher blood pressure. So,  doctors prescribe medicines that lower the blood pressure and reduce the kidney functioning this may require frequent blood tests. Normally, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers are prescribed by doctors to maintain normal kidney function.

• Fluid retention

Patients with CKD generally suffer from edema (swelling in hands and legs) or water retention to treat edema doctors prescribe diuretics that help maintain the fluid balance in the body.

• Medications to treat anemia

Supplements of the hormone erythropoietin sometimes with added iron, help stimulate more red blood cells and decreases the weakness, fatigue, and dizziness related to anemia (lower HB levels).

• Medications for phosphate balance

Normally phosphate binders are given to maintain the phosphate balance in the body.

Drugs given for phosphate binders are

• Sevelamer carbonate at 800 mg dose (6–12capsules)

• Lanthanum carbonate 250–1000 dose (3–6 chewable tablets)

• Bixalomer at 250 mg dose (6–12 capsules)

• Ferric citrate at 210 mg dose (3–5 tablets)

is generally prescribed by doctors. 

• Skin itching

Commonly calamine and menthol are the two cooling agents which are given in the form of a lotion to reduce itching caused by chronic kidney disease. Doctors also recommend ice packs and oatmeal baths to treat the itching.

• Dialysis

Dialysis involves the removal of waste products and excess fluid artificially either by a dialysis machine or outer filters.

In hemodialysis, a machine filters all the blood and waste products from the body.

Whereas in peritoneal dialysis a thin tube is inserted in the abdomen cavity of the patient with the dialysis solution that absorbs excess fluid and removes the waste from the body. 

• Surgery or Kidney transplant

The process of placing healthy kidneys taken by the donor into the patient’s body is known as a kidney transplant or surgical procedure for the fifth stage of chronic kidney disease. The kidneys either came from a deceased person or a healthy living donor. You have to take lifelong medications to maintain the acceptance of new organs by your body and will not need any dialysis after that.


Chronic kidney disease is a serious illness if you keep ignoring the symptoms it even worsens with time if left untreated,  so it is important to talk to the general health practitioner The more you delayed the more it became difficult to treat chronic kidney disease stages.   If you are facing severe Most Common Kidney Diseases, then you should consult Dr. Nisha Gaur. Dr. Nisha Gaur is the most reputed Nephrologist doctor in Jaipur and has years of work experience and is the Best Nephrologist in Jaipur for Chronic Kidney Disease Care and also for treating ailments such as Kidney Transplantation, Peritoneal Dialysis, Hemodialysis, and Kidney Biopsy.

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